Effect of the application of the “Patient blood management” programme on the approach to elective hip and knee arthroplasties.
Zalba Marcos S, Plaja Martí I, Antelo Caamaño ML, Martínez de Morentin Garraza J, Abinzano Guillén ML, Martín Rodríguez E, Aranguren Azparren A, Torres López A, Galbete Jiménez.
Background and objectives: The “Patient Blood Management” (PBM) programmes have demonstrated their value in the continuous improvement of care practice, due to continuous systematic reviewing of results and their dynamic and multidisciplinary updating in accordance with new clinical evidence. Our goal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of simple protocols, applicable in second level hospitals.
Patients and methods: 702 patients undergoing scheduled arthroplasty from 2011 to 2018 were retrospectively analysed. During this period, the evolution of transfusion rates and anaemia and bleeding management were recorded in the patients’ computerised clinical histories.
Results: Stages and transfusion rates were: Year 2011-2012, “Universal self-donation programme”: 62.4%; year 2013, “Optimization of preoperative haemoglobin and universal self-donation withdrawal”, 22.5%; year 2015, “Stopping the use of cell-savers and drains”, 13.2%; and year 2017, “Introduction of routine tranexamic acid”, 3.6%. A significant reduction in the transfusion rate and volume (P<.001) and the average hospital stay (8 to 6 days) (P<.001) was achieved. In multivariate models, transfused patients have a .5-day stay and there is a trend towards a reduction in complications, being fewer in patients receiving tranexamic acid (OR .44).
Conclusion: A simple progressive and multidisciplinary PBM programme, with continued re-evaluation, has allowed a reduction in transfusion rates and average hospital stay.
Keywords: Anemia preoperatoria; Autodonación predepósito; Autologous donation; Blood transfusion; Patient blood management; Preoperative anaemia; Tranexamic acid; Transfusión sanguínea; Ácido tranexámico; “Patient blood management”.